Respiratory Toxicity References
There is no generally accepted source for an authoritative list of chemicals that are recognized to cause
Environmental Defense's list of suspect respiratory toxicants is compiled from the following sources:
AEGL: US EPA, National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for
Hazardous Substances. Notices. 62 Federal Register: 58839-58851 (October 30, 1997)
ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html
CAA-AQC: US EPA, Office of Research and Development.
Air Quality Criteria for Oxides of Nitrogen, Volume III Washington, DC. August 1993. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/nox/s_nox_index.html
Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants, Volume III Washington, DC. July 1996. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/ozone/s_o3_index.html
Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume III Washington, DC. April 1996.http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/pm/s_pm_index.html
Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides, Volume III Washington, DC. December 1982.http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/so2/s_so2_index.html
CARB-TAC: California Air Resources Board. Toxic Air Contaminant Fact Sheets. http://www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/tac/tac.htm.
EDF: See Environmental Defense's Custom Hazard Identification documentation.
EEC: European Economic Community. Sensitizing Substances in the EEC List of Dangerous Substances. Annex I to Council Directive 67/548/EEC. http://www.kemi.se/default_eng.cfm?page=klass_mark/klasshem_eng.htm
EPA-HEN: US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html
EPA-TRI: US EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion. http://www.epa.gov/tri/chemical/hazard_cx.htm
FOTH: Foth, H. Role of the Lung in Accumulation and Metabolism of Xenobiotic compounds - Implications for Chemically Induced Toxicity. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 25(2): 165-205. 1995. (Table 1:Toxic Damage of Lung by Foreign Compounds).
HAZMAP: A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects: Lung Toxin and Other Poison - Chemical Asphyxiant, Simple Asphyxiant . http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html. Chemicals Associated with Occupational Asthma. http://www.haz-map.com/OA1.html
KLAA: Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996. (Table 15-1: Industrial Toxicants that Produce Lung Disease).
LADO: LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CT. 1990. (Table 39-1: Major pollutants associated with adverse pulmonary effects).
LU: Lu, F.C. Basic Toxicology. 2nd Edition. 1991. (Appendix 11-1: Site of Action and Pulmonary Disease Produced by Selected Occupationally Inhaled Toxicants).
NEME: Nemery, B. Metal Toxicity and the Respiratory Tract. European Respiratory Journal. 3(2): 202-219. 1990.(Table 1: Summary of pulmonary toxicity of metals).
NJ-FS: New Jersey Department of Health Services. Right to Know Program, NJDOH, Trenton, NJ.
NTP-HS: National Toxicology Program. Chemical Repository of Health and Safety Data. http://ntp-db.niehs.nih.gov/NTP_Reports/NTP_Chem_H&S/NTP_Chem8/Radian[Insert CAS#].txt
OEHHA-AREL: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000http://www.oehha.org/air/acute_rels/allAcRELs.html
OEHHA-CREL: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document "Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels". Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html.
RTECS: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.