HEALTH EFFECTS|Gastrointestinal or Liver Toxicity References

Gastrointestinal or Liver Toxicity References
There is no generally accepted source for an authoritative list of chemicals that are recognized to cause liver or gastrointestinal toxicity.

Environmental Defense's list of suspect liver or gastrointestinal toxicants is compiled from the following sources:

ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004.

ATSDR-FAQ: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ToxFAQs.

CAA-AQC: US EPA, Office of Research and Development. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants, Volume III Washington, DC. July 1996.

CARB-TAC: California Air Resources Board. Toxic Air Contaminant Fact Sheets.

DIPA: DiPalma, J.A., J. Cunningham, J. Herrera, T. McCaffery, and D. Wolf. Occupational and Industrial Toxin Exposures and the Gastrointestinal Tract. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 86(9): 1107-1117. 1991. (Table 2: Selected Agents with Purported Digestive System Injury).

DOSS: Dossing, M. and P. Skinhoj. Occupational Liver Injury. Present State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 56:1-21. 1985. (Table 2: Chemically induced liver injury: morphologic features and examples of confirmed and suspected causative agents).

EDF: See Environmental Defense's Custom Hazard Identification documentation.

EPA-HEN: US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants.

EPA-TRI: US EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion.

EXTOX: EXtension TOXicology NETwork. Pesticide Information Profiles (PIPs).

HAZMAP: A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Industrial Chemicals Associated with Toxic Hepatitis.

KLAA: Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996. (Table 13-2: Types of Hepatic Injury).

LADO: LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CT. 1990. (Table 20-1: Chemical Agents associated with occupational liver disease, Table 20-4: Agents causing acute hepatic injury).

MALA: Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995. (Tables 7-2&3: Hepatotoxic Agents).

NJ-FS: New Jersey Department of Health Services. Right to Know Program, NJDOH, Trenton, NJ.

OEHHA-AREL: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000

OEHHA-CREL: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document "Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels". Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (

RTECS: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.

STAC: Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995. (Table 3.23: Clinical manifestations of chemical-induced gastrointestinal injury).

ZIMM: Zimmerman, H.J. and J.H. Lewis. Chemical- and Toxin-Induced Hepatotoxicity. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 24(4): 1027-1045. 1995. (Table 3: Forms of environmental hepatic injury).