HEALTH EFFECTS|Kidney Toxicity References

Kidney Toxicity References
There is no generally accepted source for an authoritative list of chemicals that are recognized to cause kidney toxicity.

Environmental Defense's list of suspect kidney toxicants is compiled from the following sources:

AEGL: US EPA, National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances. Notices. 62 Federal Register: 58839-58851 (October 30, 1997).

ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004.

CARB-TAC: California Air Resources Board. Toxic Air Contaminant Fact Sheets.

EDF: See Environmental Defense's Custom Hazard Identification documentation.

EPA-HEN: US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants.

EPA-TRI: US EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion.

HAZMAP: A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects: Other Tissue Toxin - Nephrotoxin.

KLAA: Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996. (Table 14-2: Examples of Nephrotoxic Therapeutic Agents, Table 14-3: Examples of Environmental Nephrotoxicants).

LAND: Landrigan, P.J., Goyer, R.A. Clarkson, T.W., Sandler, D.P., Smith, J.H., Thun, M.J., and R. Wedeen. The Work-Relatedness of Renal Disease. Archives of Environmental Health. 39(3): 225-230. 1984. (Table 2: Estimated Numbers of Workers in the United States with Potential Occupational Exposures to Known or Suspect Nephrotoxins).

NJ-FS: New Jersey Department of Health Services. Right to Know Program, NJDOH, Trenton, NJ.

MERCK: Merck & Co. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. TABLE 226-1. Common Nephrotoxic Agents

OEHHA-AREL: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000

OEHHA-CREL: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document "Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels". Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (, plus draft CRELS proposed through Macrh 2004 (

RTECS: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.

STAC: Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995. (Table 3.8: Examples of workplace exposures that have resulted in renal toxicity).