HEALTH EFFECTS|Developmental Toxicity References

Developmental Toxicity References
P65: The most current and authoritative list of chemicals that are recognized to cause developmental toxicity is California's Proposition 65 . Substances are placed on the Proposition 65 list of chemicals "known to the state of California to cause reproductive toxicity" if an independent science advisory board has concluded they possess sufficient evidence of such toxicity in animals or humans, or if an authoritative organization such as the National Toxicology Program have reached a similar conclusion, or if a federal regulatory agency requires a reproductive toxicity warning label. The Proposition 65 list identifies whether a chemical is a developmental toxicant. The current Proposition 65 List of Developmental Toxicants (July 2004) can be obtained from

A number of chemicals have toxicological evidence of developmental toxicity that currently does not satisfy the sufficiency criteria used to list agents under Proposition 65, or that has not yet been finally evaluated by hazard identification processes in the state of California or other authoritative agencies. Environmental Defense's list of suspect developmental toxicants is compiled from the following sources:

CAA-AQC: US EPA, Office of Research and Development. Air Quality Criteria for Oxides of Nitrogen, Volume III Washington, DC. August 1993.
US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide. Washington, DC, December 1991.

CERHR: National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction. NTP-CERHR Briefs and Expert Panel Reports.

EDF: See Environmental Defense's Custom Hazard Identification documentation.

EPA-HEN: US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants.

EPA-SARA: US EPA. Roadmaps to Sources of Information on Chemicals Listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-to-Know Act (Also Known as SARA Title 3), Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory (for Microcomputers). (Report Number EPADFDK92040). 1991. Data file distributed in 2 diskettes by Office of Pollution, Prevention, and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. NOTE: Datasource no longer being maintained by EPA; not currently available online.

EPA-TRI: US EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion.

JANK: Jankovic, J. A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.

NTP-R: Chapin, R.E. and R.A. Sloane. NIEHS/NTP Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding: Evolving Study Design and Summaries of Ninety Studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 1: 199-394. 1997.

OEHHA-AREL: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000

OEHHA-CREL: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document "Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels". Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (

P65-CAND: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Chemicals under consideration for possible listing via the authoritative bodies mechanisms (through May 2004).

P65-MC: Hazard identification based on an extension of a Proposition 65 listing. Substance is either a member of a class that is a recognized Propositon 65 hazard, or is a class that contains a member that is a recognized Propositon 65 hazard. See Environmental Defense's Member Class Hazard Identification documentation.

P65-PEND: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Notices of Intent to List . Chemicals noticed for listing under Proposition 65 because a body considered to be authoritative by the state's qualified experts has formally identified it as causing reproductive toxicity (through April 2004).