HEALTH EFFECTS|Cardiovascular or Blood Toxicity References

Cardiovascular or Blood Toxicity References
There is no generally accepted source for an authoritative list of chemicals that are recognized to cause cardiovascular or blood toxicity.

Environmental Defense's list of suspect cardiovascular and blood toxicants is compiled from the following sources:

AEGL: US Environmental Protection Agency, National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances. Notices. 62 Federal Register: 58839-58851 (October 30, 1997)

ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004.

BENO: Benowitz, N.L. Cardiotoxicity in the Workplace. Occupational Medicine. 7(3): 465-477. 1992. (Table 1: Chemical Toxins and Cardiovascular Disease).

CAA-AQC: US EPA, Office of Research and Development.
Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide. Washington, DC, December 1991.
Air Quality Criteria for Oxides of Nitrogen, Volume III Washington, DC. August 1993.
Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants, Volume III Washington, DC. July 1996.
Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume III Washington, DC. April 1996.

CARB-TAC: California Air Resources Board. Toxic Air Contaminant Fact Sheets.

EDF: See Environmental Defense's Custom Hazard Identification documentation.

EPA-HEN: US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants.

EPA-TRI: US EPA. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right to Know. Proposed and Final Rules. 59 Federal Register 1788 (Jan 12, 1994); 59 Federal Register 61432 (November 30, 1994). Summarized in Hazard Information on Toxic Chemicals Added to EPCRA Section 313 Under Chemical Expansion.

HAZMAP: A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Industrial Chemicals: Methemoglobinemia Is the Primary Toxic Effect.
Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects: Hematotoxin.

IRIS: US EPA, National Center for Environmental Assessment. Integrated Risk Information System.

KLAA: Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996. (Table 17-1: Cardiotoxicity of Key Pharmaceutical Agents, Table 17-2: Halogenated Hydrocarbons Reported to Have Arrhythmogenic Properties, Table 17-3: Cardiotoxicity of Selected Industrial Agents, Table 17-6: Vasculotoxic Agents: Heavy Metals, Table 17-7: Vasculotoxic Agents: Industrial and Environmental Agents, Table 17-8: Vasculotoxic Agents: Gases).

KRIS: Kristensen, T. S. Cardiovascular Diseases and the Work Environment. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 15:245-264. 1989. (Table 5: Classification of possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the work environment).

LADO: LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990. (Table 14-1: Chemicals associated with methemoglobinemia or oxidative hemolysis, Table 14-3: Toxic substances associated with acquired porphyria in humans, Table 14-4: Chemicals reported to cause aplastic anemia in an occupational setting, Table 14-5: Toxic agents associated with isolated thrombocytopenia, Table 19-1: Classification of cardiovascular diseases and possible toxic causes).

MALA: Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD. 1995. (Table 7-1: Chemicals affecting blood).

NJ-FS: New Jersey Department of Health Services. Right to Know Program, NJDOH, Trenton, NJ.

OEHHA-AREL: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (RELs), Averaging Times, and Toxicologic Endpoints. Includes all Acute Reference Exposure Levels (ARELs) developed by OEHHA through May 2000

OEHHA-CREL: California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document "Determination of Noncancer Chronic Reference Exposure Levels". Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (

RTECS: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. See Environmental Defense's Suspect Hazard Identification documentation.

STAC: Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995. (Table 3.16: Examples of haematopoietic injury from workplace exposure, Table 3.22: Workplace exposures implicated in cardiovascular disease).