The annual risk of premature death, excluding accidental deaths and homicides.
A chronic lower respiratory disease. Studies indicate that long term exposure to PM is associated with decreases in lung function and emphysema.
RESPIRATORY HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS
Respiratory hospital admissions include admissions for asthma, pneumonia, and bronchitis.
CARDIAC HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS
Cardiac hospital admissions include admissions related to cardiac symptoms or illness.
EMERGENCY ROOM VISITS
Emergency room visits include all causes of visits, not only those related to asthma or respiratory diseases.
ASTHMA SYMPTOM DAYS
Excess risk estimates for asthma symptom days apply to the 4.7% of the population estimated to have asthma.
RESTRICTED ACTIVITY DAYS
Days where respiratory symptoms are severe enough to restrict activities.
DAYS WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS
Acute respiratory symptoms include both upper and lower respiratory symptoms.
CHILDREN WITH BRONCHITIS
Children with bronchitis, a lower respiratory illness. In addition to finding significant associations between bronchitis and annual average PM concentration, studies indicate an association between bronchitis and the probability that a child had acute bronchitis in the past year.