CAA: A national monitoring system for criteria air pollutants has been
established to assess compliance with the federal Clean Air Act. The
National Air Monitoring System and the State and Local Air Monitoring
System measure ambient concentrations of six criteria air pollutants.
Data are collected by thousands of monitoring stations operated by EPA,
national, state and local agencies. Ambient air monitoring
data are collected and made publicly available via EPA's Air Quality System. Localized reports and maps are available from EPA's AIRData website at
http://www.epa.gov/air/data/reports.html. Scorecard provides access to CAA monitoring data in its Criteria Air Pollutant Reports for communities across the U.S.
CEP90: EPA's Cumulative Exposure Project estimated the ambient air concentrations of 148 hazardous air pollutants at the census tract level, based on sophisticated dispersion modeling using 1990 emissions data. Archived information about the CEP project is available online at
CWA: Monitoring for contaminants in surface water (ocean, lakes, rivers,
and streams) and sediment is mandated by the federal Clean Water Act.
Data on toxic chemicals are collected as a result of CWA compliance
monitoring, which focuses on priority pollutants with ambient water
quality criteria. These data are compiled from local and state sources
in the Water Quality System of EPA's Storage and Retrieval of U.S.
Waterways Parametric Database at
You can locate your area to review available water quality information at http://cfpub.epa.gov/surf/locate/index.cfm. EPA's Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental ResultS system is available at http://www.epa.gov/waters/. The WATERS system combines water quality information that was previously available only from independent and unconnected databases.
FDA: Annual Reports from FDA's Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program and
reports on metals and other chemical contaminants in the food supply are
available from FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at
HAP: Several states conduct air monitoring for hazardous air pollutants. State ambient air monitoring programs that currently provide data in digital form are identified in Scorecard's Hazardous Air Pollutants section. EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards maintains an Air Toxics Data Archive of toxics monitoring data, but this resource is not publicly available.
NA: Not Available. Current monitoring programs do not cover this
chemical based on Scorecard's compilation of all chemicals that are
subject to listed monitoring or exposure estimation programs. Note that Scorecard considers exposure monitoring data as "available" even if a specific regulatory monitoring program has ceased collecting exposure data, as several have. Note also that Scorecard does not evaluate whether exposure has been or could be estimated (based on models using emissions data) by either private or regulatory organizations, because resulting exposure data are generally not publicly accessible. See
Scorecard's Assessment of Exposure Data Availability.
NATA: EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment estimates the 1996 ambient air concentrations of 39 hazardous air pollutants plus diesel emissions at the census tract level, based on sophisticated dispersion modeling using 1996 emissions data. Scorecard's Hazardous Air Pollutant Reports use NATA exposure data to characterize potential health risks from air toxics for areas in the contintental U.S. Further information about the NATA project is available at
http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/nata/. Geographically-specific data on estimated 1996 ambient concentrations for these 40 air toxics are available at
NHANES: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assesses the U.S. population's exposure to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals describes the amounts of 116 chemicals and metals in the bodies of Americans. The report was prepared by CDC using blood and urine samples collected for the ongoing National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which measures a variety of diet and health-related factors in the American population. Results are available at http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/. Exposure data on additional chemicals will appear in the Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. More on NHANES at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/dls/nhanes.htm. More on the current extent of state and federal efforts to monitor chemical levels in humans at http://www.gao.gov/archive/2000/he00080.pdf.
NHATS: From 1970-1987, the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey collected and analyzed
nationwide samples of tissue specimens to identify and quantify the
prevalence and levels of selected chemicals in humans. NHATS was
intended to fulfill the human monitoring mandates of the Toxic
Substances Control Act and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act. NHATS monitoring of human tissue for chemical
contaminants was discontinued due to budget cutbacks during the Reagan
Administration. Scorecard considers data to be available on human tissue
monitoring if chemicals were analyzed during the final 1986 survey,
reported in: EPA, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.
Semivolatile Compounds in the General U.S. Population: NHATS FY86
Results Volumes I and II. EPA, Washington, DC. 1994.
NSTP: The National Status and Trends Program is operated by the National
Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. It assesses the
contamination of estuarine and coastal waters of the U.S. by analyzing
bivalves, fish livers and sediment collected by the Mussel Watch and
Benthic Surveillance Programs. Access to NSTP monitoring data is
available at http://nsandt.noaa.gov/nsandt_overview.htm.
PTEAM: California Air Resources Board. PTEAM: Monitoring of
Pthalates and PAHs in Indoor and Outdoor Air Samples in Riverside,
California. Research Division, CARB, CalEPA, Sacramento, CA.
SDWA: Monitoring for drinking water contaminants is mandated by the
federal Safe Drinking Water Act. Data on toxic chemicals are collected
as a result of SDWA compliance monitoring, which focuses on chemicals
with maximum contaminant levels or subject to SDWA monitoring
requirements. EPA's provides access to available data on local drinking water quality at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwinfo.htm. EPA's Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) at
http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/sdwis/sdwis_ov.html tracks public water systems and their violations of EPA's drinking water regulations, as reported to EPA by the states. EPA has recently established a new National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Database to serveas a repository of a repository of drinking water quality data.
TEAM: Wallace, L. The Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM)
Study: Summary and Analysis: Volume I. Environmental
Monitoring and Quality Assurance, Office of Research and Development,
EPA, Washington, DC. 1987. EPA's Total Exposure Assessment Methodology
project conducted population-based surveys of indoor and ambient air
exposure to toxic chemicals in four states (California, New Jersey,
North Carolina and North Dakota). This project was extended in
collaboration with the California Air Resources Board to monitor indoor
and ambient concentrations of phthalates and polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons in southern California (PTEAM).
TRI-EI: EPA's Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators project estimates ambient air exposures that result from chemical releases which manufacturing facilities report to the EPA's Toxic Release Inventory. A standard air dispersion model (the Industrial Source Complex Long Term model) is used to estimate long-term pollutant concentrations downwind of a stack or area source. The EPA software is fully described at http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/rsei/index.html.
UATMP: Ambient air monitoring for hazardous air pollutants has been
conducted by the Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program at 12 network sites
across the U.S. Results are reported in Environmental Protection Agency,
1990 Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program Reports. Office of
Air Quality and Planning Standards, EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
VCCEP: EPA's Voluntary Children's Chemical Evaluation Program is intended to provide data to enable the public to understand the potential health risks to children associated with certain chemical exposures. EPA has asked companies which manufacture and/or import 23 chemicals which have been found in human tissues and the environment in various monitoring programs to volunteer to sponsor further evaluations. See Methodology for Selecting Chemicals with exposure data relevant to children's health. EPA, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. http://www.epa.gov/chemrtk/vccep/vccepmth.htm.