CHEMICAL PROFILES|National Exposure Monitoring and Estimation Programs

CAA: A national monitoring system for criteria air pollutants has been established to assess compliance with the federal Clean Air Act. The National Air Monitoring System and the State and Local Air Monitoring System measure ambient concentrations of six criteria air pollutants. Data are collected by thousands of monitoring stations operated by EPA, national, state and local agencies. Ambient air monitoring data are collected and made publicly available via EPA's Air Quality System. Localized reports and maps are available from EPA's AIRData website at http://www.epa.gov/air/data/reports.html. Scorecard provides access to CAA monitoring data in its Criteria Air Pollutant Reports for communities across the U.S.

CEP90: EPA's Cumulative Exposure Project estimated the ambient air concentrations of 148 hazardous air pollutants at the census tract level, based on sophisticated dispersion modeling using 1990 emissions data. Archived information about the CEP project is available online at http://www.greenlink.org/assess/pdfs/cumulativeexposure.pdf.

CWA: Monitoring for contaminants in surface water (ocean, lakes, rivers, and streams) and sediment is mandated by the federal Clean Water Act. Data on toxic chemicals are collected as a result of CWA compliance monitoring, which focuses on priority pollutants with ambient water quality criteria. These data are compiled from local and state sources in the Water Quality System of EPA's Storage and Retrieval of U.S. Waterways Parametric Database at http://www.epa.gov/storet/.

You can locate your area to review available water quality information at http://cfpub.epa.gov/surf/locate/index.cfm. EPA's Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental ResultS system is available at http://www.epa.gov/waters/. The WATERS system combines water quality information that was previously available only from independent and unconnected databases.

FDA: Annual Reports from FDA's Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program and reports on metals and other chemical contaminants in the food supply are available from FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/pestadd.html.

HAP: Several states conduct air monitoring for hazardous air pollutants. State ambient air monitoring programs that currently provide data in digital form are identified in Scorecard's Hazardous Air Pollutants section. EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards maintains an Air Toxics Data Archive of toxics monitoring data, but this resource is not publicly available.

NA: Not Available. Current monitoring programs do not cover this chemical based on Scorecard's compilation of all chemicals that are subject to listed monitoring or exposure estimation programs. Note that Scorecard considers exposure monitoring data as "available" even if a specific regulatory monitoring program has ceased collecting exposure data, as several have. Note also that Scorecard does not evaluate whether exposure has been or could be estimated (based on models using emissions data) by either private or regulatory organizations, because resulting exposure data are generally not publicly accessible. See Scorecard's Assessment of Exposure Data Availability.

NATA: EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment estimates the 1996 ambient air concentrations of 39 hazardous air pollutants plus diesel emissions at the census tract level, based on sophisticated dispersion modeling using 1996 emissions data. Scorecard's Hazardous Air Pollutant Reports use NATA exposure data to characterize potential health risks from air toxics for areas in the contintental U.S. Further information about the NATA project is available at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/nata/. Geographically-specific data on estimated 1996 ambient concentrations for these 40 air toxics are available at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/nata/tablconc.html.

NHANES: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assesses the U.S. population's exposure to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals describes the amounts of 116 chemicals and metals in the bodies of Americans. The report was prepared by CDC using blood and urine samples collected for the ongoing National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which measures a variety of diet and health-related factors in the American population. Results are available at http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/. Exposure data on additional chemicals will appear in the Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. More on NHANES at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/dls/nhanes.htm. More on the current extent of state and federal efforts to monitor chemical levels in humans at http://www.gao.gov/archive/2000/he00080.pdf.

NHATS: From 1970-1987, the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey collected and analyzed nationwide samples of tissue specimens to identify and quantify the prevalence and levels of selected chemicals in humans. NHATS was intended to fulfill the human monitoring mandates of the Toxic Substances Control Act and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. NHATS monitoring of human tissue for chemical contaminants was discontinued due to budget cutbacks during the Reagan Administration. Scorecard considers data to be available on human tissue monitoring if chemicals were analyzed during the final 1986 survey, reported in: EPA, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Semivolatile Compounds in the General U.S. Population: NHATS FY86 Results Volumes I and II. EPA, Washington, DC. 1994.

NSTP: The National Status and Trends Program is operated by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. It assesses the contamination of estuarine and coastal waters of the U.S. by analyzing bivalves, fish livers and sediment collected by the Mussel Watch and Benthic Surveillance Programs. Access to NSTP monitoring data is available at http://nsandt.noaa.gov/nsandt_overview.htm.

PTEAM: California Air Resources Board. PTEAM: Monitoring of Pthalates and PAHs in Indoor and Outdoor Air Samples in Riverside, California. Research Division, CARB, CalEPA, Sacramento, CA. 1992. http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/abstracts/a933-144.htm

SDWA: Monitoring for drinking water contaminants is mandated by the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. Data on toxic chemicals are collected as a result of SDWA compliance monitoring, which focuses on chemicals with maximum contaminant levels or subject to SDWA monitoring requirements. EPA's provides access to available data on local drinking water quality at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwinfo.htm. EPA's Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) at http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/sdwis/sdwis_ov.html tracks public water systems and their violations of EPA's drinking water regulations, as reported to EPA by the states. EPA has recently established a new National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Database to serveas a repository of a repository of drinking water quality data.

TEAM: Wallace, L. The Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Study: Summary and Analysis: Volume I. Environmental Monitoring and Quality Assurance, Office of Research and Development, EPA, Washington, DC. 1987. EPA's Total Exposure Assessment Methodology project conducted population-based surveys of indoor and ambient air exposure to toxic chemicals in four states (California, New Jersey, North Carolina and North Dakota). This project was extended in collaboration with the California Air Resources Board to monitor indoor and ambient concentrations of phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in southern California (PTEAM).

TRI-EI: EPA's Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators project estimates ambient air exposures that result from chemical releases which manufacturing facilities report to the EPA's Toxic Release Inventory. A standard air dispersion model (the Industrial Source Complex Long Term model) is used to estimate long-term pollutant concentrations downwind of a stack or area source. The EPA software is fully described at http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/rsei/index.html.

UATMP: Ambient air monitoring for hazardous air pollutants has been conducted by the Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program at 12 network sites across the U.S. Results are reported in Environmental Protection Agency, 1990 Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program Reports. Office of Air Quality and Planning Standards, EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. 1991.

VCCEP: EPA's Voluntary Children's Chemical Evaluation Program is intended to provide data to enable the public to understand the potential health risks to children associated with certain chemical exposures. EPA has asked companies which manufacture and/or import 23 chemicals which have been found in human tissues and the environment in various monitoring programs to volunteer to sponsor further evaluations. See Methodology for Selecting Chemicals with exposure data relevant to children's health. EPA, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. http://www.epa.gov/chemrtk/vccep/vccepmth.htm.