Scorecard's Data Sources
Scorecard integrates over 400 scientific and governmental databases to
generate its customized profiles of local environmental quality and
toxic chemicals. Since Scorecard draws all its data from authoritative
sources and combines them using state-of-the-art informatics, users can be confident they are receiving
credible information that reflects the best available science. All
data sources are clearly cited on Scorecard, with hyperlinks back to
online references whenever available. Scorecard is committed to publishing
the most current environmental data available, and is regularly revised
as its data sources are updated.
Currently, Scorecard's major sections acquire data from the following
TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASES
Scorecard combines data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
Toxics Release Inventory with
information on the potential
health hazards of toxic chemicals. The data available on Scorecard
covers chemical releases in 2002. EPA released TRI data for 2003 in May
2005; it is currently being processed for incorporation into Scorecard.
Scorecard uses uses housing and demographic measures from the 2000 Census as indicators of potential
lead hazards. In the absence of local data on blood lead levels in
children, these indicators are considered by scientists and regulators to
be useful for identifying potential problem areas. Other sources used to
investigate lead hazards include the CDC reports, Surveillance
for Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children -- United States,
1997-2001 and The Second
National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals.
Scorecard's profiles of Superfund sites are derived from multiple
sources dating from 1993 to 2004. Primary sources include: NPL Fact
Sheets maintained by EPA regions, and four EPA databases: the Superfund National
Assessment Program (SNAP), the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS)
database in Envirofacts; the Potentially Responsible Party (PRP)
database; and the Remedial Program
Managers (RPM) database. New Superfund site listings and factsheets
are added to Scorecard as they are announced; EPA has not indicated
when it plans to update its PRP and RPM datasets.
SMOG AND PARTICULATES
The poor air quality that many Americans know as smog and soot is due
to what are technically labeled criteria pollutants, like ozone and
particulate matter. Scorecard's exposure and emissions information for
criteria air pollutants is derived from two U.S. EPA sources: the Air Quality System and the
National Emissions Trend
database. Scorecard covers criteria air pollutant exposures in 2003 and
emissions in 1999. EPA released exposure data for 2004 in April 2005;
it is currently being processed for incorporation into Scorecard.
HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS
Scorecard combines exposure data from U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment with toxicity data to estimate the
health risks posed by chemical pollutants in ambient air. EPA provides
estimates of ambient air concentrations based on 1996 emissions data,
but these are generally consistent with current state monitoring data
(2001-2004). EPA's next comprehensive national-scale assessment will be
based on 2002 emissions data.
CLEAN WATER ACT AND WATERSHED
Scorecard's profiles of Clean Water Act status and watershed health are
derived from three U.S. EPA sources: the 1998 TMDL
Tracking System, the 1999 Index of
Watershed Indicators, and the 1998 National
Water Quality Inventory: 1998 Report to Congress. States submitted
updated information on Clean Water Act compliance status to EPA in 2000,
and the National Water Quality Inventory is updated biennially for
Congress (2000 update expected in 2002). EPA watershed indicator data
utilize information compliled over the period 1990-1999.
Scorecard combines livestock population data
from the U.S. Department of Agriculture with waste factors developed by
the agricultural community to estimate the amount of animal waste that livestock operations
produce. Scorecard reports on animal waste production in 1997. USDA
released its 2002 Census of Agriculture in early 2005.
Scorecard integrates data from a large number of scientific and
regulatory sources in its chemical profiles. Human health hazard information is compiled from over 100
separate data sources to identify recognized and suspected toxicants.
Hazard rankings of chemicals are collected from five scoring systems. Chemical use
information is drawn from EPA databases covering industrial uses, consumer products and pesticides. Environmental release
information is drawn from the toxic chemical and criteria air pollutant
sections of Scorecard. Regulatory coverage
data is complied from major American environmental statutes. Information
about the availablity of basic toxicity testing is derived from a 1998
EPA study of high production volume chemicals. Risk
assessment values are derived from a variety of state and federal references. Scorecard's chemical
profile information is updated quarterly.
Scorecard publishes the results of comparative risk projects that have
been undertaken by local, state or federal regulatory agencies over the
last decade. The dates of these priority-setting projects range from 1990 - 1999.